Zissis D, Lekkas D: Addressing Cloud Computing Security issues. A SaaS provider may rent a development environment from a PaaS provider, which might also rent an infrastructure from an IaaS provider. Accessed: 02-Aug-2011, Berger S, Cáceres R, Pendarakis D, Sailer R, Valdez E, Perez R, Schildhauer W, Srinivasan D: TVDc: managing Security in the trusted virtual datacenter. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society; 2010:93–97. As it is shown in Table 1, most of the approaches discussed identify, classify, analyze, and list a number of vulnerabilities and threats focused on Cloud Computing. By contrast, the PaaS model offers greater extensibility and greater customer control. Kitchenham B, Charters S: Guidelines for performing systematic literature reviews in software engineering. We have presented security issues for cloud models: IaaS, PaaS, and IaaS, which vary depending on the model. Zhang S, Zhang S, Chen X, Huo X: Cloud Computing Research and Development Trend. However, most hypervisors use virtual networks to link VMs to communicate more directly and efficiently. The authors in  provided some real-world cloud applications where some basic homomorphic operations are needed. © 2020 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Largely because of the relatively lower degree of abstraction, IaaS offers greater tenant or customer control over security than do PaaS or SaaS . The studies analyze the risks and threats, often give recommendations on how they can be avoided or covered, resulting in a direct relationship between vulnerability or threats and possible solutions and mechanisms to solve them. Onwubiko C: Security issues to Cloud Computing. The results of the systematic review are summarized in Table 1 which shows a summary of the topics and concepts considered for each approach. NY, USA: ACM New York; 2009:128–133. The applications are accessible from various client devices through a thin client interface such as a web browser (e.g., web-based email). Journal in Computer Virology Springer 2012, 8: 85–97. TR/SE-0401 TR/SE-0401. 4 0 obj
volume 10. This question had to be related with the aim of this work; that is to identify and relate vulnerabilities and threats with possible solutions. However, new security techniques are needed as well as redesigned traditional solutions that can work with cloud architectures. The selection criteria through which we evaluated study sources was based on the research experience of the authors of this work, and in order to select these sources we have considered certain constraints: studies included in the selected sources must be written in English and these sources must be web-available. Keiko Hashizume. The relationship between threats and vulnerabilities is illustrated in Table 4, which describes how a threat can take advantage of some vulnerability to compromise the system. Jasti A, Shah P, Nagaraj R, Pendse R: Security in multi-tenancy cloud. Traditional security mechanisms may not work well in cloud environments because it is a complex architecture that is composed of a combination of different technologies. It groups virtual machines that have common objectives into workloads named Trusted Virtual Domains (TVDs). These applications are typically delivered via the Internet through a Web browser [12, 22]. Fernandez EB, Ajaj O, Buckley I, Delessy-Gassant N, Hashizume K, Larrondo-Petrie MM: A survey of patterns for Web services Security and reliability standards. Implement general PaaS security best practices recommendations; Developing secure applications on Azure is a general guide to the security questions and controls you should consider at each phase of the software development lifecycle when developing applications for the cloud. Security challenges in SaaS applications are not different from any web application technology, but traditional security solutions do not effectively protect it from attacks, so new approaches are necessary . Mashups combine more than one source element into a single integrated unit. Springer Nature. Workshop on Dependability Aspects of Data Warehousing and Mining Applications (DAWAM 2009), in conjunction with the 4th Int.Conf. In IEEE International conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD’09). NY, USA: ACM New York; 2011:113–124. The keywords and related concepts that make up this question and that were used during the review execution are: secure Cloud systems, Cloud security, delivery models security, SPI security, SaaS security, Paas security, IaaS security, Cloud threats, Cloud vulnerabilities, Cloud recommendations, best practices in Cloud. Most developers still deal with application security issues in isolation, without understanding the security of the ""full stack"". Rev. Providers should be able to provide clear policies, guidelines, and adhere to industry accepted best practices. Virtualization allows users to create, copy, share, migrate, and roll back virtual machines, which may allow them to run a variety of applications [43, 44]. SaaS provides application services on demand such as email, conferencing software, and business applications such as ERP, CRM, and SCM . Using covert channels, two VMs can communicate bypassing all the rules defined by the security module of the VMM . Future Internet 2012, 4(2):469–487. However, it also introduces new opportunities for attackers because of the extra layer that must be secured . These relationships and dependencies between cloud models may also be a source of security risks. Brereton P, Kitchenham BA, Budgen D, Turner M, Khalil M: Lessons from applying the systematic literature review process within the software engineering domain. Security Issues in Cloud Deployment Models. Cloud Computing appears as a computational paradigm as well as a distribution architecture and its main objective is to provide secure, quick, convenient data storage and net computing service, with all computing resources visualized as services and delivered over the Internet [2, 3]. But rolling back virtual machines can re-expose them to security vulnerabilities that were patched or re-enable previously disabled accounts or passwords. NY, USA: ACM New York; 2012:305–316. Popovic K, Hocenski Z: Cloud Computing Security issues and challenges. Also, some current solutions were listed in order to mitigate these threats. Bisong A, Rahman S: An overview of the Security concerns in Enterprise Cloud Computing. The importance of Cloud Computing is increasing and it is receiving a growing attention in the scientific and industrial communities. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society; 2009:566–571. We therefore established that the studies must contain issues and topics which consider security on Cloud Computing, and that these studies must describe threats, vulnerabilities, countermeasures, and risks. Later, the experts will refine the results and will include important works that had not been recovered in these sources and will update these work taking into account other constraints such as impact factor, received cites, important journals, renowned authors, etc. The prototype of the system was implemented based on Xen and GNU Linux, and the results of the evaluation showed that this scheme only adds slight downtime and migration time due to encryption and decryption. In order to provide rollbacks, we need to make a “copy” (snapshot) of the virtual machine, which can result in the propagation of configuration errors and other vulnerabilities [12, 44]. If the data location is not safe physically and logically then there is always a threat to the CSCâ€™s data. 10.1007/s13174-010-0007-6. In , they propose a method based on the application of fully homomorphic encryption to the security of clouds. Malicious users can store images containing malicious code into public repositories compromising other users or even the cloud system [20, 24, 25]. Cloud Computing is a relatively new concept that presents a good number of benefits for its users; however, it also raises some security problems which may slow down its use. TVDc [73, 74] insures isolation and integrity in cloud environments. Berger S, Cáceres R, Goldman K, Pendarakis D, Perez R, Rao JR, Rom E, Sailer R, Schildhauer W, Srinivasan D, Tal S, Valdez E: Security for the Cloud infrastructure: trusted virtual data center implementation. Malware injections are scripts of malicious code that hackers inject into a cloud computing service. They concluded that HyperSafe successfully prevented all these attacks, and that the performance overhead is low. Wu and et al. Available: . The Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) has identified the ten most critical web applications security threats . Naehrig M, Lauter K, Vaikuntanathan V: Can homomorphic encryption be practical? Attack vect… Security web services standards describe how to secure communication between applications through integrity, confidentiality, authentication and authorization. Additionally, security controls and self-service entitlements offered by the PaaS platform could pose a problem if not properly configured. Virtual networks are also target for some attacks especially when communicating with remote virtual machines. Morsy MA, Grundy J, Müller I: An analysis of the Cloud Computing Security problem. The RMF is your best bet for resolving security control issues on the PaaS. Its very nature however makes it open to a variety of security issues that can affect both the providers and consumers of these cloud services. The dynamic credential changes its value once a user changes its location or when he has exchanged a certain number of data packets. Cloud Security Alliance: Security guidance for critical areas of focus in Cloud Computing V3.0.. 2011. This framework is based on Xen which offers two configuration modes for virtual networks: “bridged” and “routed”. According to the Cloud Security Alliancethe list of the main cloud security threats includes the following: Also, data backup is a critical aspect in order to facilitate recovery in case of disaster, but it introduces security concerns as well . In addition, we can see that in our search, many of the approaches, in addition to speaking about threats and vulnerabilities, also discuss other issues related to security in the Cloud such as the data security, trust, or security recommendations and mechanisms for any of the problems encountered in these environments. This threat is feasible because any legitimate user can create a VM image and publish it on the provider’s repository where other users can retrieve them. This paper reviewed various security issues inherent in the PaaS cloud model, classified them according to the essential cloud characteristics and finally recommended high-level solutions to the identified security issues. Also, even when virtual machines are offline, they can be vulnerable ; that is, a virtual machine can be instantiated using an image that may contain malicious code. In cloud computing, data is stored in a diverse geographic location with different legal jurisdictions . Insecure VM migration can be mitigated by the following proposed techniques: TCCP  provides confidential execution of VMs and secure migration operations as well. Security concerns relate to risk areas such as external data storage, dependency on the “public” internet, lack of control, multi-tenancy and integration with internal security. networks, servers, storage, applications and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort of service provider interaction, defined by NIST . The capability provided to the consumer is to provision processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computing resources where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software, which can include operating systems and applications. Unlike traditional client-based software development using tools such as Microsoft Visual Studio , PaaS offers a shared development environment, so authentication, access control, and authorization mechanisms must combine to ensure that customers are kept completely separate from each other. In both SaaS and PaaS, data is associated with an application running in the cloud. 10.1145/1743546.1743565. This approach enables more efficient use of the resources but scalability is limited. Wang Z, Jiang X: HyperSafe: a lightweight approach to provide lifetime hypervisor control-flow integrity. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society; 2007. Cloud Computing leverages many existing technologies such as web services, web browsers, and virtualization, which contributes to the evolution of cloud environments. In Proceedings of the 2009 ACM workshop on Cloud Computing Security. There are also other web application security tools such as web application firewall. In Proceedings of the 2011 International conference on intelligent semantic Web-services and applications. Subashini S, Kavitha V: A survey on Security issues in service delivery models of Cloud Computing. PaaS (Platform-as-a-Service) ist eine vollständige Entwicklungs- und Bereitstellungsumgebung in der Cloud, über die Sie Zugang zu den erforderlichen Ressourcen erhalten, um verschiedenste Lösungen bereitstellen zu können – von einfachen cloudbasierten Apps bis hin zu ausgereiften cloudfähigen Unternehmensanwendungen. Vancouver; 2007. http://taviso.decsystem.org/virtsec.pdf, Oberheide J, Cooke E, Jahanian F: Empirical exploitation of Live virtual machine migration. PaaS facilitates deployment of cloud-based applications without the cost of buying and maintaining the underlying hardware and software layers . - Provides convenience for users in accessing different OSs (as opposed to systems with multiple boot capability). There are some surveys where they focus on one service model, or they focus on listing cloud security issues in general without distinguishing among vulnerabilities and threats. Reuben JS: A survey on virtual machine Security. Tebaa M, El Hajji S, El Ghazi A: Homomorphic encryption method applied to Cloud Computing. Harnik D, Pinkas B, Shulman-Peleg A: Side channels in Cloud services: deduplication in Cloud Storage. After executing the search chain on the selected sources we obtained a set of about 120 results which were filtered with the inclusion criteria to give a set of about 40 relevant studies. One of the current cloud computing security issues and challenges affecting cloud security in 2020 is the problem of data breaches. In Proceedings of the 3rd ACM workshop on Cloud Computing Security workshop. In Cloud Computing. Also, PaaS users have to depend on both the security of web-hosted development tools and third-party services. The security of this data while it is being processed, transferred, and stored depends on the provider.  It is an approach that provides hypervisor control-flow integrity. Available: http://www.theregister.co.uk/2009/06/08/webhost_attack/. %PDF-1.5
Kitchenham B: Procedures for perfoming systematic review, software engineering group. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society; 2010:35–41. Owens K: Securing virtual compute infrastructure in the Cloud. Accessed: 16-Jul-2011 http://www.keeneview.com/2009/03/what-is-platform-as-service-paas.html Online. [Online]. Accessed: 16-Jul-2011. We also want to thank the GSyA Research Group at the University of Castilla-La Mancha, in Ciudad Real, Spain for collaborating with us in this project. Chong F, Carraro G, Wolter R: Multi-tenant data architecture. PaaS refers to providing platform layer resources, including operating system support and software development frameworks that can be used to build higher-level services. The NIST Cloud Computing Standards Roadmap Working Group has gathered high level standards that are relevant for Cloud Computing. Each cloud service model comprises its own inherent security flaws; however, they also share some challenges that affect all of them. Available: . Cloud Security Alliance: SecaaS implementation guidance, category 1: identity and Access managament. In the world of SaaS, the process of compliance is complex because data is located in the provider’s datacenters, which may introduce regulatory compliance issues such as data privacy, segregation, and security, that must be enforced by the provider. However, it requires a huge processing power which may impact on user response time and power consumption. Security policies are needed to ensure that customer’s data are kept separate from other customers . Xu K, Zhang X, Song M, Song J: Mobile Mashup: Architecture, Challenges and Suggestions. Wei J, Zhang X, Ammons G, Bala V, Ning P: Managing Security of virtual machine images in a Cloud environment. In conclusion, there is less material in the literature about security issues in PaaS. Same as SaaS, PaaS also brings data security issues and other challenges that are described as follows: Moreover, PaaS does not only provide traditional programming languages, but also does it offer third-party web services components such as mashups [10, 38]. In 5th International conference on computer sciences and convergence information technology (ICCIT). Developers have to keep in mind that PaaS applications should be upgraded frequently, so they have to ensure that their application development processes are flexible enough to keep up with changes . IaaS providers must undertake a substantial effort to secure their systems in order to minimize these threats that result from creation, communication, monitoring, modification, and mobility . The paper focuses on one of the three service delivery models, Platform-as-a-Service(PaaS). Seminar on Network Security; 2007. . Table 3 presents an overview of threats in Cloud Computing. Online. The most secure way is to hook each VM with its host by using dedicated physical channels. In National Days of Network Security and Systems (JNS2). A strong and effective authentication framework is essential to ensure that individual users can be correctly identified without the authentication system succumbing to the numerous possible attacks. Like Table 2 it also describes the threats that are related to the technology used in cloud environments, and it indicates what cloud service models are exposed to these threats. With IaaS, cloud users have better control over the security compared to the other models as long there is no security hole in the virtual machine monitor . With SaaS, the burden of security lies with the cloud provider. Xiaopeng G, Sumei W, Xianqin C: VNSS: a Network Security sandbox for virtual Computing environment. Somani U, Lakhani K, Mundra M: Implementing digital signature with RSA encryption algorithm to enhance the data Security of Cloud in Cloud Computing. Rittinghouse JW, Ransome JF: Security in the Cloud. They implemented a prototype system based on Xen hypervisors using stateful firewall technologies and userspace tools such as iptables, xm commands program and conntrack-tools. For example, a malicious VM can infer some information about other VMs through shared memory or other shared resources without need of compromising the hypervisor . 10.1007/s11416-012-0168-x. NY, USA: ACM New York; 2010:88–92. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. In IaaS environments, a VM image is a prepackaged software template containing the configurations files that are used to create VMs. The capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure his own applications without installing any platform or tools on their local machines. From Table 2, we can conclude that data storage and virtualization are the most critical and an attack to them can do the most harm. VM images are dormant artifacts that are hard to patch while they are offline . Online. 2008, 42(1):40–47. Virtual machine security becomes as important as physical machine security, and any flaw in either one may affect the other . Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). Jansen WA: Cloud Hooks: Security and Privacy Issues in Cloud Computing. Available: https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/research/top-threats Available: ENISA: Cloud Computing: benefits, risks and recommendations for information Security. Available: http://www.cpni.gov.uk/Documents/Publications/2010/2010007-ISB_cloud_computing.pdf Available: Khalid A: Cloud Computing: applying issues in Small Business. TCCP  enables providers to offer closed box execution environments, and allows users to determine if the environment is secure before launching their VMs. In the second model, the vendor also provides different instances of the applications for each customer, but all instances use the same application code. The public cloud refers to software, infrastructure, or platforms offered as a service by 3 rd parties over the Internet, referred to as Cloud Service Providers or CSPs. Shared responsibility in the cloud. J Internet Serv Appl 4, 5 (2013). Available: https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/secaas/SecaaS_Cat_1_IAM_Implementation_Guidance.pdf Available: Xiao S, Gong W: Mobility Can help: protect user identity with dynamic credential. Ristenpart T, Tromer E, Shacham H, Savage S: Hey, you, get off of my cloud: exploring information leakage in third-party compute clouds. In Proceedings of the 33rd International convention MIPRO. Zhang Q, Cheng L, Boutaba R: Cloud Computing: state-of-the-art and research challenges. The inclusion and exclusion criteria of this study were based on the research question. Zhang F, Huang Y, Wang H, Chen H, Zang B: PALM: Security Preserving VM Live Migration for Systems with VMM-enforced Protection. In some cases, this switch has required major changes in software and caused project delays and even productivity losses. Syst. That uncertainty has consistently led information executives to state that security is their number one concern with Cloud Computing . In Proceedings of the 10th conference on Hot Topics in Operating Systems, Santa Fe, NM. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media, Inc.; 2009. TVDc provides integrity by employing load-time attestation mechanism to verify the integrity of the system. This useful feature can also raise security problems [42, 43, 47]. This is true in any type of organization; however, in the cloud, it has a bigger impact because there are more people that interact with the cloud: cloud providers, third-party providers, suppliers, organizational customers, and end-users. One of the most significant barriers to adoption is security, followed by issues regarding compliance, privacy and legal matters . There are several security standard specifications  such as Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML), WS-Security, Extensible Access Control Markup (XACML), XML Digital Signature, XML Encryption, Key Management Specification (XKMS), WS-Federation, WS-Secure Conversation, WS-Security Policy and WS-Trust. Vordel CTO Mark O'Neill looks at 5 challenges. 1 0 obj
Web application firewall routes all web traffic through the web application firewall which inspects specific threats. We intend to complete all the others in the future. Traditional web applications, data hosting, and virtualization have been looked over, but some of the solutions offered are immature or inexistent. There are very few limitations on what applications can be run on the infrastructure or what tools can be used to run the applications. Moreover,  describes that encryption can be used to stop side channel attacks on cloud storage de-duplication, but it may lead to offline dictionary attacks reveling personal keys. Furthermore, web services are the largest implementation technology in cloud environments.
2020 security issues in paas